Japanese style pruning of shrubs and trees. I have been interested in this way of pruning for a number of years and first visited Japan in October 2014.
Niwaki means garden tree in Japanese. It is a tree that is pruned to bring out the characteristics of ageing and the intrinsic nature of the tree. They are different from bonsai because niwaki trees are planted in the garden and reach a much larger size. Growth is controlled by pruning. For pines this is usually twice a year – once in spring midoritsumi (shortening the new growth) and once in autumn momiage (where the old needles are pulled off and shoots are thinned to one or two)